Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1

By Prof. Claudia
Instead of verbs, we’ll work with noun plurals today. As learning verbs is a long task, let’s keep them for every other lesson, shall we? I would like to thank Dennis from the US and Dave from Oz, who have sent me some great feedback on my lessons. I love to receive emails from you so please keep them coming. Secondly, I thought I was giving only Portuguese tips, but some English ones are here as well, isn’t that right Luis?

Activity 1
Read part of a song, Dois Rios, by Skank:

E os lbios beijam and lips kiss
E os olhos vem and eyes see
E os braos sentem and arms feel
Dois rios inteiros sem direão two whole free rivers
E o meu lugar este aqui and my place is right here
Ao lado seu next to you
No corpo inteiro…” in all of your body

The words lbios, olhos, braos and rios are in the plural form. As there are several ways to form plurals, it is important to know the word in the singular form. After this, it’s just a matter of applying the rules!

Activity 2
Let’s take a look at the table below:


Singular – Words Ending Add Plural
a, e, i, o, u, , ee.g. mesa, casebre, pai, aluno, tatu, r, me
s
mesas, casebres, pais, alunos, tatus, rs, mes
al, el, ol, ule.g. animal, carretel, anzol, azul
is
animais, carretis, anzóis, azuis
ile.g. fóssil, funil
eis or is
fósseis, funis
um, eme.g. lbum, armazm
ns
lbums, armazns
r, ze.g. cor, giz
es
Cores, gizes


Activity 3
Using the table above, write these words in the plural form:
Escritório: ___________
Profissional: ___________
Secretria: ___________
Gerente: ___________
Diretor: ___________
Papel: ___________
Viagem: ___________


Activity 4
If you take a look at the song again, you’ll find the sentence “dois rios inteiros”.
In Portuguese, adjectives also have a plural form, which we’ll learn later on.


See you next class!
Prof Cludia


To read previous articles by Prof. Claudia click below:
Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
Portuguese Tips
Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

Prof. Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present

By Prof. Claudia
Sooner or later students ask about verbs. The truth is verbs are not easy in Portuguese. They can be regular, irregular, exceptional such as the verb haver (there to be), and more…There are thirteen basic verb tenses, and four basic cases: indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and noun forms. To smooth the journey, we’ll use the help of my favorite Brazilian writer. Meanwhile, I’ll show you a bit of our literature.

Activity 1
Read this poem by Mrio Quintana.

Sentir primeiro, pensar depois feeling at first, thinking after
Perdoar primeiro, julgar depois forgiving at first, judging after
Amar primeiro, educar depois loving at first, educating after
Esquecer primeiro, aprender depois forgetting at first, learning after
Libertar primeiro, ensinar depois releasing at first, teaching after
Alimentar primeiro, cantar depois feeding at first, singing after
Possuir primeiro, contemplar depois having at first, contemplating after
Agir primeiro, pensar depois acting at first, thinking after
Navegar primeiro, aportar depois sailing at first, arriving after
Viver primeiro, morrer depois.” living at first, dying after.


Activity 2
There are 20 verbs in the poem, and many are regular. What makes a verb regular in Portuguese? Observe and understand Presente do Indicativo simple present

Pronoun Amar Bater Partir
Eu Amo Bato Parto
Voc, ele, ela Ama Bate Parte
Nós Amamos Batemos Partimos
Vocs, eles, elas Amam Batem Partem



A regular verb keeps its root and terminations accordingly to its conjugation model.

Activity 3
Try to complete: more regular verbs in the simple present.

Pronoun Estudar Resolver Cobrir
Eu . . .
Voc, ele, ela . . .
Nós . . .
Vocs, eles, elas . . .


Activity 4
To practice both grammar and context, try to write a short poem, as in Activity 1. Write about what comes first and what comes after in your life, as Mario Quintana did.


See you next class!
Prof Cludia

To read previous articles by Prof. Claudia click below
Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
Portuguese Tips
Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

Prof. Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

Portugues Tips

Prof. Cludia
One of my students recently asked me about the difference between aqui, ali and l. As you will see, it&rsquot;s quite easy to understand the difference between aqui and l but what about ali?

Activity 1
Lets take a look at the lyrics for some Brazilian songs:
s vezes difcil esquecer: “sometimes it&rsquot;s hard to forget
– Sinto muito, ela não mora mais aqui.” I&rsquot;m sorry, she doesn&rsquot;t live here anymore
Acrilic on Canvas, by Legião Urbana

“Ali o malandro na praa outra vez over there, the cunning man in the square again
Caminhando na ponta dos pés…” walking on tiptoes
A volta do malandro, by Chico Buarque

“Vou ler a carta que o Biel mandou I&rsquot;ll read the letter sent by Gabriel
Pra voc, l do Brasil.” to you, from there, Brazil.
A carta, by Djavan

Aqui, as seen in the first song, means “here”, while l, seen in the third song, means “there”. Ali, however as seen in the second song, doesn&rsquot;t always have a consistent meaning, it depends on the context. It can mean “over there”, as well as “not far”.

Activity 2
Let&rsquot;s have a closer look at this difference. Imagine you are on the corner of Paulista Ave. and Augusta St. in São Paulo:

“O meu escritório aqui, na Avenida Paulista. my office is here, on Paulista Ave.
Eu costumo almoar ali, na Bela Cintra. I usually have lunch over there, on Bela Cintra St.
Como moro em Moema, nunca almoo l em casa.” as I live in Moema, I never have lunch there, at home.

Activity 3
Ok now for an exercise, try to place the correct word (aqui, ali or l) according to the context.

1. (man in a shop):
Com licena, vocs vendem balas nesta loja?
Com licena, vocs vendem balas …………?

2. (woman on Faria Lima, to a taxi driver)
Por favor, quanto tempo leva at o aeroporto em Cumbica?
Por favor, quanto tempo leva at ………….?

3. (child in Ibirapuera Park, near the lake)
Pai, olha o lago! Quantos patos!
Pai, olha ……….! Quantos patos!


Answers: 1. aqui 2. l 3. ali


See you next class!
Prof. Cludia

To read previous articles by Prof. Claudia click below
Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes


Prof. Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese

By Prof. Claudia
Adverbs are words that modify or describe a verb. A common ending for Portuguese adverbs is mente. To create an adverb in Portuguese normally you add mente to the noun.

Activity 1
Read part of the song Certas Coisas”, by Lulu Santos:

“Tudo o que cala everything left unsaid
Fala mais alto ao coraão speaks louder to the heart
Silenciosamente silently
Eu te falo com paixão…”I speak to you passionately

The adverb silenciosamente modifies or tells us something about the action or verb, which in this case is falar.

Activity 2
Now try to rewrite these sentences with adverbs, substituting the underlined words:

a. Eu espero com pacincia. I wait patiently
b. Eles comem com pressa. they eat hurriedly
c. Nós trabalhamos com cuidado. we work carefully

Answers:
a. Eu espero pacientemente.
b. Eles comem apressadamente.
c. Nós trabalhamos cuidadosamente.

Activity 3
If you re-read the sentences above, you will find another kind of adverb, the use of “com + noun” for example:
Com profissionalismo (ou profissionalmente) professionally
Com objetividade (ou objetivamente) objectively
Com lentidão (ou lentamente) slowly

Activity 4
As in English, there are some irregular adverb.
Check a few of them:
As crianas lem bem. the children read well
Esse peixe est cheirando mal. this fish smells bad

Activity 5
Now let&rsquot;s return to the song Certas Coisas, by Lulu Santos, as there is one more example of an adverb. Did you manage to find it?
The two last words: com paixão, or apaixonadamente. passionately


See you next class!
Prof. Cludia


To read previous articles by Prof. Claudia click below
Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative


Prof. Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative

By Prof. Claudia
In Portuguese, we use mais” for both more and most, the comparative and superlative, in English. Don`t confuse it with mas, which means but. Also, be careful with common errors such as “mais grande”. The correct way to say bigger in Portuguese is maior.

Activity 1 – Superlative
Have a look at the beginning of the song Pessoa, by Marina Lima:

“Olhar voc
E não saber
Que voc a pessoa mais linda do mundo…”

to look at you
yet not be aware
that you are the most beautiful person in the world



The expression “a pessoa mais linda do mundo” is a superlative, because there’s no one else more beautiful.

Activity 2 – Comparative
Now read this sentence:

O Monte Everest mais alto do que o Monte Fuji.
Mt Everest is higher than Mt Fuji

The expression “mais alto do que” is a comparative, because it is comparing two objects.


Here are more examples:
O estado da Bahia maior do que o estado do Cear.
Bahia state is bigger than Cear

Hoje o tempo est pior do que ontem.
The weather today is worse than yesterday


Activity 3 – Exceptions
Here are some “irregular” terms which don`t use mais in the comparative or superlative.


Check this table:

SuperlativeComparativeWrong usage
o (a) melhor The bestMelhor que better than
(Or melhor do que)
o (a) maior The biggestMaior que bigger than
(Or maior do que)
o (a) mais grande
o (a) pior The worstPior que worse than
(Or pior do que)
o (a) menor The smallestMenor que smaller than
(Or menor do que)
o (a) mais pequena


Attention:
In Portuguese, adjectives follow the noun, so they can be in the plural form, as in this example:
O Pantanal possui algumas das mais belas paisagens do Brasil.
The Pantanal has some of the most beautiful landscapes in Brazil


See you next class!
Prof. Cludia

Prof. Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br