By Teacher Claudia
August 17, 2007

Dear readers, my American student has asked me the meaning of the word Adeus” (goodbye), as there seems to be a “deus” in it. Due to his remark, we had another very fruitful discussion on the many expressions Brazilians use on daily conversations, apparently not aware we are speaking the name of God in vain. Well, I did my homework, found the reason why we say “Adeus” and some other things that may interest you. By the way, Brazilians don’t like to say “Adeus”. Just keep reading me and you’ll understand why.

Activity 1 – Introduction
Read a piece of the song “Partido Alto”, by Chico Buarque.

Diz que deu, diz que d
Diz que Deus dar
Não vou duvidar, ó nega
E se Deus não d
Como que vai ficar, ó nega

(Say it was possible, tell me it is
Say God will make it so
I won’t doubt it, my babe
And if God doesn’t
How will it be, my babe?)

Activity 2 – Context
As you could read on Activity 1, God is mentioned in times of despair, or when we can’t speak what we really mean. In fact, the song “Partido Alto” is one of the many which had its lyrics censored in the dark years of the military dictatorship.

One could naively think that due to the strong presence of Catholicism in Brazil, we speak the name of God at least once a day, completely unaware of the weight of our words. However, there are many other reasons to call Him: blind faith that compensates poverty, total disbelief against our social pyramid, deep indignation on our politicians, the list is long. I personally ask Him for Education. After decades teaching, I know it’s the only solution for my country.

Activity 3 – Examples
Here are very popular expressions (among many) on “Deus”.
Check which ones you know and learn some more.

1. A Deus dar.: give it to God, He will solve it
2. Deus te crie!: in southern Brazil, when someone sneezes, we say, God raises you!
3. O amanh a Deus pertence.: tomorrow belongs to God
4. (tambm sou) filho de Deus.: (I’m also) son/daughter of God, I also have rights
5. Se Deus quiser…: if God wishes so, if it’s His will
6. Pelo amor de Deus!: for the love of God! I can’t believe it!
7. Só Deus (resolve)…: only God (solves it, fixes something)
8. Fique / fica com Deus.: be with God, take care, goodbye

Activity 4 – Curiosity
What about “Adeus”? In the past, the full expression at parting was “A Deus te entrego”, or to God I deliver you, meaning I won’t be here anymore, so you’re in His hands. As time went by, some of the original words were forgotten, the sentence was contracted to “A Deus”, and nowadays it’s only “Adeus”, everything together. Naturally, many don’t know the origin of the word, but we all comprehend it’s a beautiful, but sad farewell. And that’s one of the reasons we Brazilians avoid saying “Adeus”. To my ears, its translation is “Take care”.

Activity 5 – Transference
I left “Adeus” to the end because it brings another necessary reflection on my mother-tongue: why Brazilians struggle to tell the truth at once. But that is a subject for September.

See you next week!

Cludia

Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 2
Brazil: Third World Chaos
Brazil’s Catholic Parties in June
Portuguese Tip: Sounds Part 2 – De & Di
Portuguese Tip: Diminutives
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Final Part
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Exceptions
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs
Brazil: A Day in São Paulo
Why Not? (Or on Brazilian Indians)
Portuguese Tip: Infinitives and Gerunds Part 1
Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X Nenhum
Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. Todo
Brazil’s Independence Day
Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Denials
Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and Nem
Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
Portuguese Tip: Odd words
Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
Portuguese Tip: Sounds
Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
Portuguese Tips
Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

By Teacher Claudia
August 3, 2007

Dear readers, in April last year I began writing on the subjunctive mood, that is, Brazilian Portuguese if clauses. My tip then was the subjunctive future, and now it’s finally time for the subjunctive present. Do pay attention, and should you have any doubt, contact me, as always. By the way, I’d like to thank you for the suggestion of a new Scottish singer, Paolo Nutini, and his beautiful song Last Request. On the other side (mine, so to say), I recommend a new Brazilian movie, Saneamento Bsico, a comedy on red-tape versus what really matters.

Activity 1 – Introductory text
Read a piece of the song Pequenas Coisas”, by 14 Bis:

Cada instante que ouo bater
Meu coraão dentro de mim
Ouo as palavras do vento
Me confessar
Que desde o incio dos tempos
Busca chegar
Onde possa se transformar
Numa brisa
Pra transportar e guardar

(Small things

Every time I hear
My heartbeat inside of me
I hear the wind’s words
Confessing to me
That it has since the beginning of time
Tried to come to a place
Where it can be transformed
Into a breeze
To take and keep)

Activity 2 – Grammar in Context
On the song above, there’s an underlined word possa. It is an example of the present of the subjunctive mood, or the verb tense that represents a strong possibility. Read some more sentences:

Que eu possa ser uma boa professora para voc.
Que nós possamos estudar juntos por bastante tempo.
Que voc possa ajudar muitas pessoas.

Activity 3 – Grammar in Form
To use the subjunctive present, we need to remember the first person singular of the indicative present and remove its last letter “o”. After that, to first conjugation verbs we add E, E, EMOS and EM, accordingly to the pronoun, for ex:

Falar (eu falo): que eu fale, que voc fale, que nós falemos, que vocs falem.

To second and third conjugation verbs we add A, A, AMOS, AM, also accordingly to the pronoun, for ex:

Poder (eu posso): que eu possa, que voc possa, que nós possamos, que vocs possam.
Partir (eu parto): que eu parta, que voc parta, que nós partamos, que vocs partam.

Activity 4
Attention, please! There are two very special verbs, completely irregular, ser and ir. Their present subjunctive is, respectively: que eu seja, que voc seja, que nós sejamos, que eles sejam; and que eu v, que voc v, que nós vamos, que eles vão.

Que voc seja sempre saudvel.
Que eles sejam felizes.

Que o Brasil v a uma boa direão.
Que nós vamos em paz.

Activity 5 – Exercise
Conjugate these verbs in the subjunctive present:

Amar / viajar / conhecer / saber / trazer / abrir / conseguir / criar / atrair

See you next class,

Cludia

Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

Brazil: Third World Chaos
Brazil’s Catholic Parties in June
Portuguese Tip: Sounds Part 2 – De & Di
Portuguese Tip: Diminutives
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Final Part
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Exceptions
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs
Brazil: A Day in São Paulo
Why Not? (Or on Brazilian Indians)
Portuguese Tip: Infinitives and Gerunds Part 1
Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X Nenhum
Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. Todo
Brazil’s Independence Day
Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Denials
Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and Nem
Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
Portuguese Tip: Odd words
Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
Portuguese Tip: Sounds
Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
Portuguese Tips
Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

By Teacher Claudia
June 11, 2007

One of my dear pupils has asked me why we pronounce Denise” differently from “dinheiro”, that is the sounds “de” and “di”. I did my homework, looking for words with the “di” syllable, and not only did I find that his remark is true, but that it also happens with the “ti” syllable as well! It’s as if there were a “j” pronounced in words with “di” and “ti”. The closest example in English would be “Did you.?” If you join these two words, you may hear the sound my student has cleverly noticed.

Activity 1 – Introduction
Read some common sayings in Brazilian Portuguese.

1. Um dia da caa, o outro do caador.
2. Pelo dedo se conhece o gigante.
3. gua mole em pedra dura, tanto bate at que fura.
4. Dinheiro na mão vendaval.
5. A cavalo dado, não se olham os dentes.
6. Quem não tem cão, caa com gato.
7. Quem ri por ltimo, ri melhor.
8. Quem ama o feio, bonito lhe parece.

(Free translations of such sayings:
1. One day is the prey’s, the next the hunter’s.
2. By the finger one knows the giant.
3. Soft water on a hard rock, so much it breaks till it makes a hole.
4. Money in hand is a windstorm.
5. Don’t look a gifted horse on the mouth.
6. If you don’t have a dog, hunt with a cat.
7. Who laughs last, laughs best.
8. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.)

Activity 2 – Pronunciation
Repeat the following syllables and the examples of words with them, taken from the Activity 1.

/da/ dado
/de/ dedo
/di/ dia, dinheiro
/do/ entendedor
/du/ dura, dado

/ta/ basta
/t/ at
/ti/ ltimo, bate, gigante, dentes
/tu/ tanto, gato, bonito

Activity 3 – Explanation
You may be asking yourself, “Why are there so many terms in italics?” or “Is there something wrong? Some words aren’t in the proper place.” Well, dear reader, that’s because, although dado is written with a “do” in the end, it’s not spoken like that. It’s pronounced with a soft “du” ending; just like dedo. The same happens to the “te” and “to” syllables, they are pronounced with soft “ti” and “tu” sounds; bate, gigante, dentes, tanto, gato, bonito.

Activity 4 – Practice
Write words with these syllables and speak them out loud.

Da: ………………………………………..
De: ………………………………………..
Di: ………………………………………..
Do: ………………………………………..
Du: ………………………………………..

Ta: ………………………………………..
Te: ………………………………………..
Ti: ………………………………………..
To: ………………………………………..
Tu: ………………………………………..

Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

Portuguese Tip: Diminutives
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Final Part
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Exceptions
Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs
Brazil: A Day in São Paulo
Why Not? (Or on Brazilian Indians)
Portuguese Tip: Infinitives and Gerunds Part 1
Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X Nenhum
Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. Todo
Brazil’s Independence Day
Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Denials
Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and Nem
Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
Portuguese Tip: Odd words
Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
Portuguese Tip: Sounds
Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
Portuguese Tips
Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

By Teacher Claudia
Jun 1, 2007

Dear readers, I had just explained a topic to my American student when he went, Nossinha!” showing his surprise. I corrected him immediately, because no one can say “Nossinha”, as it refers to “Nossa Senhora”, the mother of Jesus Christ. People may speak “Nossa!”, and not even recall what it originally means, but that’s a different issue. Robert then asked something very interesting: if Brazilians often use the diminutive degree, how can he know when or not change a noun into it? Here it is.

Activity 1 – Introduction
Read a piece of the song “Mulher de Fases”, by Raimundos.

Complicada e perfeitinha:
Voc me apareceu.
Era tudo que eu queria, estrela da sorte.
Quando noite ela surgia,
Meu bem voc cresceu.
Meu namoro na folhinha:
Mulher de fases.

(Woman of phases

Complicated and perfect:
You came to me.
You were all I wanted, lucky star.
When at night the moon appeared,
My love you bloomed.
My date follows the calendar:
Woman of phases.)

Activity 2 – Context
The two underlined words in the song above, perfeitinha and folhinha, are examples of diminutives in Portuguese. There are three possibilities to use such degree: regarding the size, in a pejorative tone or to show affection. In the song “Mulher de Fases” we can see two of them, perfeitinha in the pejorative way, she’s just too perfect; and folhinha, as the calendar size sometimes is very small. An example of affection is the way my family and friends call me: Claudinha. Perhaps it has to do with size as well, because I’m not tall!

Activity 3 – Form
To form the diminutive, we need to pay attention to the end of the noun:

  • If it ends in s or sa, we just add “inho” or “inha”: lpis – lapisinho; princesa – princesinha.
  • If it ends in z, a consonant or stressed syllable, we keep the z and add “inho” or “inha”: nariz – narizinho; flor – florzinha; ma – mazinha.
  • Activity 4 – Another Form
    There’s a lazy way to use diminutives in Portuguese, by simply adding the adjective pequeno or pequena to the noun: pequeno lpis, pequena princesa, pequeno nariz and so on. But it’s not as charming, is it?

    Activity 5 – Exercise
    Change these words to the diminutive form:

    Livro / homem / cabea / janela / coraão / mesa / jornal / amiga / carta / palavra

    See you next week!

    Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

    To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

    Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Final Part
    Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Exceptions
    Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs
    Brazil: A Day in São Paulo
    Why Not? (Or on Brazilian Indians)
    Portuguese Tip: Infinitives and Gerunds Part 1
    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X Nenhum
    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. Todo
    Brazil’s Independence Day
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Denials
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and Nem
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
    Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
    Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
    Portuguese Tip: Odd words
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
    Portuguese Tip: Sounds
    Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
    Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
    A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
    Portuguese Tips
    Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
    Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
    Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

    By Teacher Claudia
    May 25, 2007

    Dear readers, today we’ll see the last part of the regularity of verbs in Portuguese, concerning Second and Third Conjugations.

    Activity 1 – Introduction
    Read a piece of the song Cara Valente”, by Maria Rita.

    Foi escolher o mal-me-quer
    Entre o amor de uma mulher
    E as certezas do caminho
    Ele não pde se entregar
    E agora vai ter de pagar com o coraão.

    (Bold guy

    He chose loves-me-not
    Between a woman’s love
    And the well-known way
    He could not surrender
    And now he will pay
    With his heart.)

    Activity 2 – Context
    Dear students, there are some conjugated verbs in italics in the song above: foi, pde, vai, ter. As you know, foi is from “ir”, pde from “poder”, vai from “ir” again, and ter is already in the infinitive form. It’s not coincidental that these verbs end either in “er” or “ir”.
    They are from the Second (“er”) and Third Conjugations (“ir”), our object of study today.

    Activity 3 – Form
    The Second Conjugation consists of all verbs ending in “er”. Among many considered difficult verbs in Portuguese, one that is particularly tricky is “caber”, to fit. Here it is, in the Present of the Indicative.

    Eu caibo
    Voc, ele, ela cabe
    Nós cabemos
    Vocs, eles, elas cabem

    Activity 4 – A curiosity!
    If you are a little acquainted with verbal study, you may be asking yourself, Where are the verbs ending in “or”? Well dear reader, verbs of that kind, for ex, “por”, and all its related ones, such as “transpor”, “expor”, “supor” etc belong to the Second Conjugation, because in the past their ending was “oer”. Personally, I’m not a fan of such verbs, due to their sound. Here is their so-called father, “por” because all of “or” ended verbs follow its conjugation.

    Eu ponho
    Voc, ele, ela pe
    Nós pomos
    Vocs, eles, elas pem

    Activity 5 – Form: Third Conjugation
    Besides all verbs ending in “ir”, the Third Conjugation also considers verbs ending in “air” and “uir”, because these receive an “i” on the second and third persons of the singular form in the Indicative. Look:

    Cair (to fall) Possuir (to own)
    Eu caio Possuo
    Voc, ele, ela cai Possui
    Nós camos Possumos
    Vocs, eles, elas caem Possuem

    Most used verbs that follow “cair”: sair, atrair, esvair, trair. Most used verbs that follow “possuir”: atribuir, anuir, contribuir, influir, evoluir, distribuir, and retribuir.

    Activity 6 – Practice
    Finally, dear student! This is the last exercise of verbal conjugation! (at least for now…). Practice these, in the simple present and simple past:

    1. Expor – Trazer
    2. Atrair – Evoluir

    ERRATA
    Dear reader, I’ve made a typing mistake on my last tip. In Activity 4, instead of “most used irregular verbs”, I should have typed “most used verbs”. That’s it.

    See you next week!

    Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

    To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

    Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs in Portuguese – Exceptions
    Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs
    Brazil: A Day in São Paulo
    Why Not? (Or on Brazilian Indians)
    Portuguese Tip: Infinitives and Gerunds Part 1
    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X Nenhum
    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. Todo
    Brazil’s Independence Day
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Denials
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and Nem
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
    Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
    Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
    Portuguese Tip: Odd words
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
    Portuguese Tip: Sounds
    Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
    Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
    A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
    Portuguese Tips
    Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
    Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
    Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

    By Teacher Claudia
    May 19, 2007

    Dear readers, you did surprise me with the final result on my poll, How often would you like to read Portuguese tips on the site?, as 66% of you answered Every week”! I knew, from the emails I get as feedback, that there were people already reading me in several countries, but I had no idea that they were actually following my tips.

    As I live and die for my students, from now on you’ll have a weekly tip, and I’ll be a lot busier! Today we’ll see the regularity of verbs in Portuguese, regarding the Special Cases of the First Conjugation.

    Activity 1 – Introduction
    Read a piece of the song “Olhos Certos”, by Detonautas.

    Tento te encontrar
    Tanto pra dizer.

    Meu amor, tudo bem
    Sorte de nós dois
    Quero te fazer feliz
    Meu amor, sempre quis.

    Seus olhos certos, mas não sei o que dizer
    Eu não vou, mas o tempo vem.
    T tudo certo, mas não sei o que dizer
    Eu não vou, mas o tempo vem aqui.

    (Correct Eyes

    I try to find you
    So much to say.

    My love, it’s all right
    We’re the lucky ones
    I want to make you happy
    My love, I’ve always wanted to.

    Your correct eyes, but I don’t know what to say
    I don’t go, but time comes.
    It’s all right, but don’t know what to say
    I don’t go, but time comes.)

    Activity 2 – Context
    Dear students, there are several verbs in italics in the song above, dizer, fazer, ir, vir, estar, saber.

    If you remember the last exercise of my previous tip, there was the verb “por” there, just as a reminder of our “different’ verbs. They are irregular, or verbs that needn’t follow rules whatsoever. They are special.

    Activity 3
    The First Conjugation considers verbs ending in “ar”, as well as its related ones, such as “ear” and “iar”.

  • “ear”
  • All verbs ending in “ear” are irregular, because they receive an “i” in the present of the Indicative and in the present of Subjunctive, on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd persons of the singular form and on the 3rd of the plural.

    Read the verb “frear”:

    Eu freio
    Voc, ele, ela freia
    Nós freamos
    Vocs, eles, elas freiam

  • “iar”
  • There are many verbs ending in “iar”. They can be either regular or irregular, observe:

    Negociar (regular) Odiar (irregular)
    Eu negocio Odeio
    Voc, ele, ela negocia Odeia
    Nós negociamos Odiamos
    Vocs, eles, elas negociam Odeiam

    Activity 4
    To help you a little bit, I’ve divided the most used irregular verbs in two groups:

    Regular verbs ending in “iar” Irregular verbs ending in “iar”
    Afiar / agenciar / comerciar / criar / esfriar / licenciar / miar / negociar / premiar / providenciar / sentenciar / silenciar / vadiar Memorize the name MARIO:M: mediarA: ansiarR: remediarI: incendiarO: odiar

    Activity 5 – Practice
    Once again, it’s time for you to exercise your verbs. Practice these, in the simple present and simple past:

    1. Passear
    2. Providenciar
    3. Mediar

    See you next week!

    Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

    To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

    Portuguese Tip: Regularity of Verbs
    Brazil: A Day in São Paulo
    Why Not? (Or on Brazilian Indians)
    Portuguese Tip: Infinitives and Gerunds Part 1
    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X Nenhum
    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. Todo
    Brazil’s Independence Day
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Denials
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and Nem
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
    Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
    Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
    Portuguese Tip: Odd words
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
    Portuguese Tip: Sounds
    Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
    Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
    A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
    Portuguese Tips
    Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
    Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
    Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

    By Teacher Claudia
    Dear readers, today we’ll see a delicate topic, the regularity of verbs in Portuguese. When my first Australian student asked me about that, I wasn’t prepared to answer. He and his question were the first sparks to guide me in a new and challenging journey: the study and comprehension of my mother-tongue, in order to be a real teacher. His doubt made me a student again, learning about my work, my teaching and my goals. He changed my life.

    If I may give you a tip, this is it: ask. Ask teachers, friends, family, co-workers. Ask everyone, all questions you may have. Who knows, you might change someone’s life, too.

    Activity 1
    Read a piece of the song Poder”, by Arnaldo Antunes.

    “Pode ser loucura, pode ser razão;
    Pode ser sim, pode ser não;
    Pode ser amor, pode ser prisão;
    Pode ser inverno, pode ser verão.

    Só não sei porque eu e voc não pode não.
    Eu só não sei porque eu e voc não pode não.

    Pode ser reforma, pode ser revoluão;
    Pode ser conselho, pode ser lião;
    Pode ser antes, pode ser então.

    Só não sei porque eu e voc não pode não.
    Eu só não sei porque eu e voc não pode não.”

    (“Might”

    It may be madness, it may be sense;
    It may be yes, it may be no;
    It may be love, it may be prison;
    It may be winter, it may be summer.

    I just don’t know why it may not be you and I.
    I just don’t know why it may not be you and I.

    It may be reform, it may be revolution,
    It may be advice, it may be lesson;
    It may be before, it may be then.

    I just don’t know why it may not be you and me.
    I just don’t know why it may not be you and me.)

    Activity 2 – Context
    The word “Poder” in Portuguese works as a noun and also as a verb, depending on the context.
    As a noun, it can mean power or possibility. As a verb, it can mean to be able to and the modal verbs can, may and might. “Poder” is a very important term in Portuguese, and one of the hardest examples of Irregular Verbs.

    As you may remember, there are three families, or three endings for verbs in my language:

  • “ar”, or First Conjugation, for ex. “chegar”, “trabalhar”;
  • “er”, or Second Conjugation, for ex. “poder”, “conhecer”;
  • “ir” or Third Conjugation, for ex. “sair”, “dormir”.

    Activity 3 – Regularity of Verbs
    A regular verb is the one which doesn’t have its root altered and which endings follow the model of its conjugation, or “family”, for instance “cantar”.
    The endings in bold are regular ones, or the model for the first conjugation.

    Presente do Indicativo (simple present) Pretrito perfeito do Indicativo (simple past)
    Eu canto Cantei
    Voc, ele, ela canta Cantou
    Nós cantamos Cantamos
    Vocs, eles, elas cantam Cantaram

    Now, an irregular verb is the one which root, endings or both are altered. It follows no model, as the verb “poder”.

    Presente do Indicativo (simple present) Pretrito perfeito do Indicativo (simple past)
    Eu posso Pude
    Voc, ele, ela pode Pde
    Nós podemos Pudemos
    Vocs, eles, elas podem Puderam

    The simple present of “poder” might fool you, making you think it’s regular. But take a look at it again; the first person is completely different from the others. That’s why we must know the verb’s simple present and simple past, to double-check it. The “Presente” and “Pretrito perfeito” are the fundamental verb tenses, so we can only know the regularity of a verb by remembering (and practicing) them.

    Activity 4 – Practice
    Dear reader, you need to exercise your verbs. Practice these verbs, in the simple present and simple past:

    1. Amar – Dar
    2. Comer – Querer – Por
    3. Sair – Ir

    Next class we’ll only study verbal exceptions.

    See you!

    Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.brTo read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:Brazil: A Day in São PauloWhy Not? (Or on Brazilian Indians)Portuguese Tip: Infinitives and Gerunds Part 1Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X NenhumBrazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. TodoBrazil’s Independence DayBrazil: Portuguese Tips – DenialsBrazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and NemPortuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2Portuguese Tip: The X DoubtsBrazil: To Tell or Not to TellBrazil: Ipiranga MuseumPortuguese Tip: Odd wordsPortuguese Tip: Interjections and ExpressionsA Brazilian Holiday: October 12thPortuguese Tip: SoundsPortuguese Tip: Verb TensesPortuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, SuaPortuguese Tip: Interjections and ExpressionsPortuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2A Brazilian custom: Kissing the CheekPortuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple PresentPortuguese TipsPortuguese Tips: Adverbs in PortuguesePortuguese Tips: Comparative and SuperlativeForeigners Through Brazilian Eyes

  • By Teacher Claudia
    Happy 2007, dear readers! Thank you for your encouraging emails, interesting suggestions and useful critique on my work.

    My foreign students sometimes misuse infinitives and gerunds, especially if their mother-tongue is English. As the topic presents several details”, I’m splitting it in two lessons. Let’s study the gerund first, shall we?

    Activity 1
    Read the beginning of the song “Sentidos”, by Zlia Duncan:

    “Não quero seu sorriso
    Quero sua boca
    No meu rosto
    Sorrindo pra mim.

    Não quero seus olhares
    Quero seus clios
    Nos meus olhos
    Piscando pra mim.”

    (I don’t want your smile
    Want your mouth
    On my face
    Smiling to me.

    I don’t want your glances
    Want your eyelashes
    On my eyes
    Blinking to me.)

    Activity 2
    Explanation.
    In activity 1, the words sorrindo and piscando have been underlined.

  • They are in the gerund form, usually shown by terms which end in -ando, -endo, -indo.
  • The gerund can be used in two forms, “simples” (sorrindo, piscando) and “composta” (tendo or havendo sorrido, tendo or havendo piscado).
  • The “simples” form explains an action in course:
    Chegando atrasada, ela precisou correr.
  • The “composta” form is about an action ended:
    Tendo chegado atrasada, ela pediu desculpas.
  • There’s always a condition of cause, time, manner and means, plus a sense of timing:
    Acreditando nele, ela se declarou.
    Dizendo aquilo, ele partiu.
  • The gerund can also be with another verb form, creating a “locuão verbal”:
    Est chovendo muito.
    Eles vivem brigando.

    Activity 3
    Attention!
    Differently from English, we can’t use the gerund in the future. The sentence “O diretor estar voltando de Singapura amanh” is wrong! “O diretor voltar de Singapura amanh” is correct.

    Activity 4
    Practice what you’ve studied.
    Complete these sentences with the gerund form:
    a. …………………………, faremos a festa. (poder)
    b. …………………………. vencido o jogo, comemorou a vitória. (ter)
    c. Eles estavam ……………………… muito alto! (falar)
    d. Sem dvida, ele vinha ……………………….. o melhor. (ser)

    Ok, dear readers, enough for a day.
    Next class I’ll talk about the infinitive.
    See you!
    Cludia

    Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

    To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Ningum X Nenhum
    Brazil: Portuguese Tip – Tudo vs. Todo
    Brazil’s Independence Day
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Denials
    Brazil: Portuguese Tips – Não and Nem
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: If Clauses Part 1
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
    Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
    Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
    Portuguese Tip: Odd words
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
    Portuguese Tip: Sounds
    Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
    Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
    A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
    Portuguese Tips
    Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
    Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
    Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

  • By Teacher Claudia
    There’s something very interesting going on; while I teach using Brazilian songs and literature, some readers are teaching me about their own culture. That’s how I’ve learnt of Damien Rice and his stunning songs.

    My tip for today is an essential element in any language, due to its meaning: hypothesis.

    Activity 1
    Introduction.

    Read the passage:

    Finalmente – At last

    O que farei se te encontrar de novo?
    Serei forte como nos meus pensamentos
    Ou fraca como na sua presena?
    Se eu conseguir andar at voc
    Voc finalmente me abraar?”

    (What will I do if I meet you again?
    Will I be strong as in my thoughts
    Or weak as in your presence?
    If I can walk to you
    Will you hug me at last?)

    Activity 2
    Explanation.

    Understand what it is:

    There are basically four kinds of if clauses, or subjunctive clauses in Portuguese; the present, the imperfect, the past perfect and the future.

    The least used is the past perfect, and the present is naturally studied with the imperative.

    Therefore, we’ll work on the imperfect and the future.

    Our focus today is the future subjunctive.

    Activity 3
    Expansion.

    Know what it is in English:

    Our future subjunctive corresponds to the first conditional, the verb tense used for a true possibility, such as the first sentence of the poem in activity 1:

    “O que farei se te encontrar de novo?”, or What will I do if I meet you again?

    Activity 4
    Formation.

    Know how to form it.

    First of all, we need to remember the ordinary simple past for ex, the verb fazer:

    Eu fiz,
    Voc, ele fez
    Nós fizemos
    Vocs, eles fizeram

    Secondly, we take the bold printed part, which is now our base form, and add R, R, RMOS or REM, accordingly to the pronoun, for ex:

    Se eu fizer
    Se voc, ele fizer
    Se nós fizermos
    Se vocs, eles, fizerem

    Easy, right?

    Activity 5
    Exercise.

    Complete the following sentences using the future subjunctive:

    1.
    a. Vocs vão viajar nesse fim-de-semana?
    b. Se ……………………….. (fazer) sol, nós viajaremos.

    2.
    a. Ele vai ficar com a vaga?
    b. Se o salrio ………………………………. (ser) bom, ele aceitar.

    3.
    a. Voc acha que a situaão vai piorar?
    b. Se a inflaão ……………………………….. (continuar) assim, o ano ser difcil.

    4.
    a. Amanh eu vou para o Rio.
    b. Se voc ……………………………….. (agendar) com o diretor, ele ter uma reunião com voc.

    Answers: fizer / for / continuar / agendar

    See you next class!

    Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br

    To read previous articles by Teacher Claudia click below:

    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts Part 2
    Portuguese Tip: The X Doubts
    Brazil: To Tell or Not to Tell
    Brazil: Ipiranga Museum
    Portuguese Tip: Odd words
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    A Brazilian Holiday: October 12th
    Portuguese Tip: Sounds
    Portuguese Tip: Verb Tenses
    Portuguese Tip: The Mystery of Seu, Sua
    Portuguese Tip: Interjections and Expressions
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 2
    A Brazilian custom: Kissing the Cheek
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Past
    Portuguese Tips: Plurals – Part 1
    Portuguese Tips: Regular Verbs – Simple Present
    Portuguese Tips
    Portuguese Tips: Adverbs in Portuguese
    Portuguese Tips: Comparative and Superlative
    Foreigners Through Brazilian Eyes

    By Teacher Claudia

    Dear readers, first of all, thanks for your e-mails. It’s rewarding to know someone is reading my tips, and these are of some help.

    Going back to the X Doubts, we do have some tricky letters in Brazil, mainly x, , s and z. Today we’ll learn more about the letter X in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Activity 1

    Introduction.

    Read the passage:

    No outro dia, no meio da chuva, eu vi um ex-aluno

    Ele pegou um txi, e a chuva ficou por trs dele, como uma cortina de gua

    Por que ele não me viu?”

    (The other day, in the middle of the rain, I saw an ex-student

    He took a taxi and the rain was behind him, as a curtain of water

    Why didn’t he see me?)

    Activity 2

    Learn the three general aspects of X.

    I. It’s used:

    1. When the first syllable of a word is “en”: enxaguar, enxame, enxaqueca;

    2. After the diphthongs “ai, ei, ou”: baixo, peixe, frouxo.

    II. Its four different sounds:

    1. As ch: bruxa, coxa, xerife;

    2. As z: exagero, exato, exausto;

    3. As ks: txi, tóxico, fluxo;

    4. As s: texto, extremo, extinto.

    III. Its nemesis, ch, because they sound the same: chave, lixo, chuchu.

    Can you know the spelling, by just saying the words?

    Activity 3

    Expand your vocabulary.

    Some words are written with ch, others with X.

    Ch ones: cachimbo, chicote, machado, cochichar.

    X ones: bexiga, caxumba, faxina, mexerico.

    Activity 4

    Practice a little.

    Complete these words:

    En.ergar – to see

    En.ugar – to dry

    En.urrada – flood

    Activity 5

    A little more.

    Now you complete and translate by yourself:

    Amei.a

    Cai.a

    Dei.ar

    Quei…a

    Quei…o

    Sei…o

    Activity 6

    Use your memory.

    Complete the words with X or ch, according to what you’ve already learnt of Portuguese.

    Word

    Translation

    Word

    Translation

    Bo…e…a

    cheek

    Li…o

    garbage

    Bro.e

    brooch

    Lu…o

    luxury

    .aleira

    kettle

    Me…er

    to stir

    .amin

    chimney

    Pu.ar

    to pull

    Words written with …

    Words written with .

    Activity 7

    Use your ears!

    Separate the words according to their sound, but first speak them out loud, to remember them.

    xingar / fixar / flexão / expulsar / xarope / expansão / xodo / excursão / xereta / exaltar / nexo / executivo

    Sound of ch:

    1. ………………………………….

    2. ………………………………….

    3. ………………………………….

    Sound of z:

    4. ………………………………….

    5. ………………………………….

    6. ………………………………….

    Sound of ks:

    7. ………………………………….

    8. ………………………………….

    9. ………………………………….

    Sound of s:

    10. ………………………………….

    11. ………………………………….

    12. ………………………………….

    That’s all, see you next class!

    Teacher Claudia is available for private classes in São Paulo. She can be contacted at claudiafmla@uol.com.br