By Paul Hopkins
October 23, 2007

This article is to tell you about our experiences in migrating to and opening a restaurant in Brazil, more specifically, in Trancoso, Porto Seguro, in the South of Bahia.

I am from Perth in Western Australia and I met my wife in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro. We got married in 1993. After living in Niteroi for one year (I used to teach English), we decided it was time to go to Australia and work hard at exploiting the 1st world” (for a change), then come back to Brazil to open a very small business and chill out by the beach somewhere.

In 2000, we came back to Brazil for a 3 month holiday to see if we still felt the same way about coming back for good. So we flew all the way to Fortaleza and drove down to the South of Bahia, and the answer was YES! But instead of opening a small pousada, I decided what Brazil’s northeast really needed was options in terms of food. So we went back to Australia to save a bit more and to get organized in relation to our future plans. In our last 3 years in Australia, we did all the small business courses available to prepare ourselves to run a business, as both of us had been public servants all our working lives. I did my Commercial Cookery course (Chef’s Course) and 2 year’s work experience in a variety of restaurants. My wife (Luiza) did a Bar & Restaurant Service & Management Course and also some work experience in several restaurants in Australia. Both of us tried to learn as much as we could about the industry in the shortest period of time as we were both working full-time in our real jobs. Of course, we needed to gather as much money as we could behind us, as we were aware that things in Brazil are, most of the time, not very easy or the economy very stable.

So, in 2005, we finally took the plunge, resigned from our jobs and sold our house and arrived in Brazil on June 12th. When we left Australia, I already had my Brazilian Permanency Visa (tip: if you are in the process of applying for a Permanency Visa for Brazil, it’s much easier to get it via the Brazilian embassy in your home country than it is applying once you’re already here). So we went to Niteroi to stay with family and friends, buy a car and legalize both our situations (CPF, RNE, Electoral Voting Cards, bank accounts etc). We then decided to travel around the northeast of Brazil and look for a place to call home. We stopped first in Cumuruxatiba and then in Trancoso which is where we decided to settle.

We then started looking for a pousada with a restaurant. After awhile, watching our new friends who had pousadas, we decided that the lifestyle was way too quiet for us and decided to go for a restaurant. We found a very nice place and leased it in September 2005. We waited for our container with our stuff plus everything we bought for the restaurant to arrive, and “Restaurant Masala” was born on December 25th 1995. We decided to open a small business in Luiza’s name, got an accountant and got the business happening. The first year was hard, as the restaurants here in Trancoso are very traditional and have been open for 20, 15, 8 years or so. So, the competition was tough! Being confident and stubborn beings, we kept going and are now in our second year, going on to our third summer.

We are doing really well now. The restaurant has been growing steady at about 100% in revenue every month (year on year), which is really great. We made it into the main guide book in Brazil the “Guia 4 Rodas 2008”. We are also finalists for a state award for small businesses in the tourism category. Considering we never had a bizz before and we only have 2 and 1/2 staff, it’s not too shabby… In the summer we can get up to 6 to 8 staff but the rest of the year, it’s just a waiter/barman and a cook, and a cleaning lady during the day (part-time). We prefer to pay them better and register them and get some travelers for the summer.

Were there were any bumps on the road to bliss? Of course. We ran into several obstacles during the course of the first year. Staffing was a real nightmare. In the first 6 months, 8 people went through our kitchen. With the floor staff, we decided to invest in some new blood, training young people from scratch, with very good results. We got an accountant who just took our money every month and never paid our taxes. So, one day we decided to check with the “Receita Federal” and found out we’d never paid any taxes at all. So, tip number two: never give money to your accountant, get the notes and pay for them yourself. In the end, we got most of our money back but had to pay heaps of fines and it wasn’t a pleasant experience.

Anyway, we are now very happy with our place; the menu is very interesting and diverse. We specialize in Thai and Indian cuisine and have things like Fish and Chips etc. I thought originally that Brazilians generally don’t like chilli but we’re finding it’s not only the gringos who love their spicy curries. The quality of our food and our return rate is very high. The music and ambience make a huge part of who we are and gringos like you me, are the major part of our clientele. So, if you need more information about opening a restaurant in Brazil or are coming to Trancoso for a holiday, we are more than happy to help you out in any way possible.

Paul (and Luiza) run the Masala restaurant in, Trancoso, Bahia (Phone: +55 (73) 3668 1872, email Paul describes the Masala (an Indian/Hindi word for a mixture of spices) Restaurant as bringing the diversity of Modern Australian Cuisine (MAC); cuisine that has been heavily influenced by the country’s southeast Asian neighbours and by the many waves of immigrants from all parts of the world.

By Tim Cowman
October 23, 2007

Climate change is the hot topic (please excuse the pun) of the moment. No more so than in the country commonly referred to as the lungs of the world, Brazil. Over this four weeks Tim Cowman will bring us up to speed on the newly created business of the climate.

The issue with the Amazon of course does not merely lie in the number of its trees but its destruction must also be considered in light of the wide-ranging implications that could be felt. Scientists consider that this ecosystem controls the climate of the entire continent and supplies rain from the Amazon basin (largest freshwater reserve in the world) to the economically essential agricultural fields of southern Brazil.

One of the driving aims of the previously mentioned Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was to channel funds and clean technologies to developing nations to cut their GHG emissions. As has been highlighted in areas such as renewable energies, energy efficiency and methane avoidance it can be considered a success. One large obstacle however still remains, that of the unresolved issue relating to reforestation projects.

The problem with forestation centers on the non permanent nature of the credits generated by these types of projects. Trees absorb CO2 from the atmosphere to grow through photosynthesis, however the majority of this stock of carbon that is created through absorption of the GHGs will then be re-released into the air through combustion or decomposition of the trees. In simple terms what happens if I grow a forest and then someone comes along and burns it? All the carbon that had been removed from the atmosphere is once again released back into it.

Due to this the present number of registered forestation projects is 1, which is insignificant when compared to the 458 from the energy industries, 189 from waste handling and disposal, and 75 from Agriculture. As the world climate change experts head to Bali at the end of the year for the latest Kyoto Protocol talks the hope is that there will be a ruling on the forestation issue. Brazilian private entities and the government though do not have confidence in this and therefore have started to develop their own workable solutions.

Before locating a solution it is first essential to understand the problem and Brazilian deforestation is clearly one based on economics. Presently it is more economically advantageous to deforest, graze cattle or carry out logging on a vast scale within the rainforest than maintain it.

As the complexities of carbon reduction projects and forestation continue, those that live off the land will remain reluctant to take the gamble of relying on an income generated by carbon credits. As recently as the 1970’s the wood exporters now based in the Amazon Rainforest were invited there on the back of a government 2 for 1 scheme, in which you received twice as much land in payment for the land you cleared. Since that time they have built up businesses, families, communities, schools and towns that all live off the timber trade in these previously inhospitable zones.

The question is how do we compensate these people for not chopping down the Amazon and where does this money come from? Stopping completely is not the solution but the challenge is to make it economically interesting for the forest to be managed sustainably.

The fourth and final part next week, highlighting some of the new schemes and projects to address this problem…

Tim Cowman works for Biostudio Environmental Services ( A São Paulo based Environmental Consultancy active in carbon inventories, environmental translations, carbon reduction projects and environmental education. Email

Previous articles by Tim:

Brazil: The Business of Climate Change Part 2

Brazil: The Business of Climate Change Part 1

Where is the Biodiesel in Brazil?
The Kyoto Protocol: A Brazilian Opportunity? Part 2
The Kyoto Protocol: A Brazilian Opportunity? Part 1
Brazil: The Real Estate Mafia?
Brazil: The Third Insight – Real change is a slow process
Brazil: The Second Insight – In Adversity We See a People’s True Nature
Brazil: The First Insight – Top sportsman “In the zone” a state of Nirvana?
Brazil: Enlightenment – The Way of the FIFA World Cup
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 4
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 4
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 2
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 1
Brazil: Welcome to Samba Football School
Brazil: The Romance of the Copa Brasil Part 2
Brazil: The Romance of the Copa Brasil Part 1
Brazil: On the Road in the North East
Brazil: Teresina Part 3
Brazil: Teresina Part 2
Brazil: Teresina Part 1

By Ricky Skelton
October 22, 2007

So why then, and this is not only my particular case, does this barren land possess my mind? I find it hard to explain. but it might partly be because it enhances the horizons of imagination. That’s what Charles Darwin had to say about Patagonia and I wouldn’t want to dispute his theories. I certainly shouldn’t try to elaborate on the either but I’ll try in this case. For his theory On The Origin of Species, Darwin spent five years travelling the world on board the Beagle, a ship that had the pleasant task of charting the South American coastline, including the Galapagos Islands. I spent a few days travelling there and back on a bus and a few hours driving around, so you’ll forgive the lack of depth in this article. I’m not sure I needed much more time though, there isn’t a lot there.

Excluding the Andes and Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia consists of almost a million square kilometres of flat, treeless landscape, broken only by the rivers that work their way from the mountains in the west. The steppes are covered in scrub with waist-high bushes giving each other a little breathing space. There are genuine tumbleweeds too, I saw my first one rolling across the road in front of me. Normally these bushes are used to show that every body has left a one-horse town. In Patagonia, there aren’t any towns.

At least not many for tumbleweeds to roll through, blown by a constant wind that has nothing to break it down, no trees, no houses, no hills and no valleys. The wind is free to blow where and when it chooses for hundreds of miles in every direction. If I’m making it sound like the Siberian wastelands or the Mongolian Steppes, that’s probably because they sound very similar. So why the romanticised view of Patagonia? There are other featureless landscapes that inspire fear as much as respect – the blinding polar ice-sheets; the burning Australian deserts; the emptiness of the Botswana salt-flats; and the claustrophobia of the open seas. It is hard to find life in such places, and being there is a constant reminder of mortality. Patagonia doesn’t have that fear factor attached to it. An English sailor shipwrecked in 19th Century Tierra del Fuego walked across Patagonia to Buenos Aires. It took him five years, but he managed it. Perhaps the clear, cloudless skies and the vivid colours of a thousand Patagonian dawns and a thousand Patagonian sunsets kept his spirits up as he dream of returning home.

Is it the knowledge that survival is a possibility that allows you to relax as you stare at the distant horizon? With nothing to distract it, your mind is free to drift away into a dreamland. The chance to dream while awake is rare and therefore precious, it allows you to collect your thoughts and expand on them without interruption. Patagonian Dream Therapy. In my case, it allowed me to stare at the horizon for hours, wondering at the appeal of the area to Darwin, to me and to many more. Perhaps Patagonia only appeals to the dreamers of the world, but isn’t everyone a dreamer?

You can visit Ricky’s blog at

Previous articles by Ricky:

Around South America: Montevideo, Uruguay
Around Brazil: The Amazon
Around South America: Bariloche, Argentina
Understanding Gringoes: Drinking
The Great Brazilian Fruit-Off Part 2
The Great Brazilian Fruit-Off Part 1
Understanding Brazil: The Kids
Brazil v Argentina: Buying Beer
Understanding Brazil: Mosquitoes
Around Brazil: São Luis
Teaching English in Brazil
Around Brazil: Lenois Maranhenses
Understanding Brazil: The National Anthem
Around Brazil: Barreirinhas
Around Brazil: Jericoacoara to Barreirinhas
Understanding Brazil: Shopping Centres
Around Brazil: Jericoacoara
Around Brazil: Chapada da Diamantina/Lenois
Brazil vs. Argentina: Statues of Christ
Around Brazil: Salvador
Brazil vs. Argentina: The Buses
Around Brazil: Morro de São Paulo (& Itabuna)
Understanding Brazil: The Workmen
Around Brazil: Praa Pateo do Colegio
Around Brazil: Porto Seguro
Around Brazil: Rio de Janeiro to Porto Seguro
Around Brazil: Cristo Redentor
Understanding Brazil: The Sellers
Around Brazil: Ilha de Gigoia
Brazil Journeys: São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro
Understanding Brazil: Dogs Part 2
Brazil: A Lie-In in Downtown São Paulo?
The Best Job in Brazil: Ankle Specialist?
Understanding Brazil: Dogs
Brazilian Places: Ilha do Santa Catarina (Floripa)
Classic Brazilian Journeys: South to Florianopolis
Understanding Brazil – The Shower
Brazil: Boats on the Amazon
Brazil: Understanding Novelas
Brazil: Bus fires in São Paulo – always a bad thing?

By Neil Davies
October 22, 2007

Eclipsed, in size terms and to a great extent culturally, by neighbours Brazil and Argentina there exists an overlooked country of 3 million people of which in Europe we know very little. Who could come up with three facts about Uruguay? It founds itself in the headlines, at least in the Spanish-speaking press, recently due to being engaged in a dispute with Argentina over two pulp paper mills being built along the shared Uruguay river, which lead to Argentine ecologists blocking the two countries land borders.

Having visited Uruguay this year my impression was of a developed, proud, peaceful, yet contradictory place. Kurt Vonnegut once wrote, History – read it and weep!”, and the country’s recent past has been difficult, to say the least. In the 1960’s Marxist Tupamaro guerrillas waged a violent anarchist campaign and there followed repressive military rule between 1973 and 1985, More recently, after the region’s 2001 economic crisis unemployment levels rose to more than 20%, and this period saw Uruguay experiencing the highest numbers of emigration of any Latin American nation. It is estimated that, even several years on, up to one-fifth of all Uruguayans now live abroad. Having always prided itself on being “The Switzerland of South America” – I was treated to this famous phrase on more than one occasion – the figures show that Uruguayans are still the South Americans most in favour of democracy, 77% stating that “democracy is preferable to any other form of government”. Yet things are never simple in the aftermath of such a troubled political legacy. The Human Rights body Reporters Without Borders noted in 2007 that the media were only “fairly free”, pointing out that parliament had still not decriminalised media offences, and last month La Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa condemned the “favouritism” shown by the Government, which engenders “corrupt conduct”. That a national paper actually reported these findings could be positive sign, but when I asked a few simple questions to locals about the country and its politics, they answered in hushed tones, presumably out of long-established habit.

Current Uruguayan President Tabar Vsquez, a cancer specialist, has promised an investigation into the disappearances of opponents of the military dictatorship in the 1970s and 1980s, and has also announced a $100m emergency plan to help the poor. He also restored diplomatic ties with Cuba after relations had been severed after a war of words between the Cuban leader and Mr Vsquez’s predecessor, Jorge Batlle. Battle had brought lack of diplomacy to new heights in 2002 when describing the Argentine nation, amusingly enough, as “a band of thieves, each and everyone one of them”. He also proclaimed, “We are great!” in the middle of the aforementioned economic malaise. Last March Vsquez received American President George Bush and signed a deal to develop alternative fuel sources. As a contrast, the perennially undiplomatic Venezuelan leader Hugo Chvez was welcomed by Argentina’s president Nestor Kirchner and addressed 40,000 anti-Bush demonstrators in Buenos Aires. About 5,000 protesters gathered in Uruguay for Mr Bush’s visit, and I noticed a lot of anti-Bush graffiti on the walls. Despite the people’s mood, Vsquez is keen to sign free trade deals with the US, even if it means leaving the Mercosur trade bloc.

From a tourist perspective, Uruguay has plenty to offer. The popular spots are the pretty Colonia del Sacramento, a picturesque ex-Portuguese colony and UNESCO World Heritage Site, and Punta Del Este, a kind of Uruguayan Marbella or Cote dAzur which, crucially for the tourist trade, is a highly-rated summer resort packed during the summer months. There are also over 20 beaches around Montevideo, which is a very manageable capital city – pleasant, safe enough and boasting stylish architecture and a beautiful central square, the Plaza de Independencia. A few years ago, in fact, Montevideo was ranked the number one South American city in terms of quality of life, and its cafs, shops and restaurants, at least in the temperate months, tend to be busy. Bookshops abound, and this is a nation with a 93% rate of literacy (compared, to give a contrast, to 86% in Brazil). The culinary speciality is of course the tremendously tender steak, which for a couple of euros is irresistible to all but vegetarians. People are unfailingly polite and helpful, and I would add just from personal experience, less given to hoodwinking the foreigner/gringo than in Argentina. Uruguay is a small country, with the limits this brings with it, but Jan Morris once referred to Wales as “never feeling small when youre in it”, and Uruguay, I think, shares this description. It suffers from the lack of towering historical figures, be they politicians such as Perón or Pinochet, a single great footballer like Maradona (who has his own Church in Argentina), or literary giants to compare with Pablo Neruda or Jorge Luis Borges. In Buenos Aires, I talked to an Argentinean who dismissed Uruguay as “a province of Argentina”. This statement will enrage anyone from a small nation. As a kind of revenge, Uruguay will sometimes claim legendary “Argentinean” tango singer Carlos Gardel as their own, and while some historians have indeed claimed that Gardel was born in Tacuarembó, Uruguay in 1887, this amounts to something like an Englishman claiming Dylan Thomas or Sean Connery. Try getting that past the Welsh or the Scottish.

These are seemingly times of great change in South America, or as Jorge Castaneda, Mexican professor of Latin American Studies at New York University, puts it, “The battle for Latin America has begun”. Dictators like General Pinochet have died, and democracy, along with a certain degree of economic stability, undoubtedly exists in countries like Chile, Argentina and Brazil. However Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa has highlighted the continued danger of “troglodyte” rulers – Evo Morales, Hugo Chvez, and the lingering Fidel Castro – who continue to rely on “an anachronistic and delirious messianism”. Uruguay’s president between from 1985 to 1990, (and then again from 1995 to 2000) Julio Mara Sanguinetti, in a recent article tellingly quoted the Columbian leader lvaro Uribe; “Weve seen plenty of elected dictators – theyre still dictators.”

Mario Benedetti, Uruguay’s best-known poet and novelist and considered one of Latin America’s most important living writers, now back living in Montevideo after years of exile, described his land as, “the country that doesnt dream”. I wouldnt want to attempt to explain or interpret his words, but perhaps increased European tourism and economic growth will allow Uruguayans the dreams they deserve.”

October 19, 2007

Meet Will Periam, from the UK, who has worked all over the world, married a Brazilian, and is now living in Brazil. Read the following interview where he tells us about some of his most memorable experiences from Brazil and gives some useful advice to newcomers.

1. Tell us a little about yourself, where are you from, what do you do etc.?

I am a 40 year old married Englishman with two kids (5 and 3). I am originally from the Midlands, UK, but haven&rsquot;t lived in the UK for a long time now. I work for Ford Motor Company and am presently Treasurer of its South American Operations.

2. When did you arrive in Brazil and what brought you here?

My work with Ford over the years has kept me outside of the UK at my choice – so far 6 years in Detroit, USA, 4 years in Cologne, Germany and now here in São Paulo. I enjoy the challenge of living and working outside of the UK and the ability to travel that this gives me. I came to work in Brazil after I asked Ford if a move here was possible as I needed to learn Portuguese. My wife Monica is Brazilian, and she speaks to our children only in Portuguese. As they grow up I was faced with the possibility of not understanding their conversations with their mother. That, coupled with the many Brazilians we meet wherever we go meant that my lack of Portuguese was starting to become a problem for me. It is a lot easier to learn Portuguese here in Brazil than it would have been in Germany! So here I am.

Monica often reminds me that my life changed dramatically since we met. She worked for Ford in the US for a while and we met there. After a period together in the US she returned to Brazil, and later I returned briefly to the UK, but we managed, with a lot of effort, to continue our long distance relationship. We married in Barbados. I never imagined I would end up living in Brazil while we were dating.

3. What were you first impressions of Brazil?

When I first visited Brazil in 1997 I don&rsquot;t recall having any pre-conceived ideas of São Paulo or of the country. I remember very well the crazy traffic, the often decrepit trucks and the very poor infrastructure. I remember just as well the caipirinhas, picanha and being able to find something amusing in almost every situation. Since I have been coming here every year since 1997 I have noticed the average age of the cars and trucks on the roads reducing and some infrastructure improvements, as well as now the relative lack of inflation and an increase in economic stability in the country.

4. What do you miss most about home?

After my parents recently visited my stocks of marmite and teabags are now replenished, so I am now sorted for another year or so. When I first started working abroad I really missed pubs and English beer (Adnams” and “Old Speckled Hen” to be precise) and English sports. Now I have spent so long away I don&rsquot;t miss the beer so much and the sports I can usually see via TV, bars or the internet. I haven&rsquot;t found anything to properly match the atmosphere of an English pub though.

5. What has been your most frustrating experience in Brazil?

I am surprised to find it difficult to answer this question, not because there are not frustrations here, but because I don&rsquot;t find anything particularly annoying after a few years of visiting and now a year living here. I do find document requirements and bureaucracy frustrating, but then I also like the fact that when I arrive in the country from abroad with my family I use the Brazilian Nationals immigration line because my “children are very tired and a bit ill” (eu dei um jeitinho).

The way that every driver wants to try and gain the smallest advantage at junctions, without a care for the impact on other drivers, is also frustrating – I have a theory that drivers&rsquot; traffic behaviour is a perfect reflection of Brazilian culture.

6. What has been your most memorable experience in Brazil (specific incident)?

We went to visit Bonito in Mato Grosso do Sul a few years ago. One of the many things to do is float/swim down several of the freshwater streams/rivers and see all of the underwater life (the current just takes you steadily down the river and with a wetsuit you float). The water is warm, crystal clear and teeming with aquatic life. One of the trips started in a lagoon and before we started off down the river we were exploring the lagoon. The guide called me and my wife over to look at something in the water. We swam over and he was showing us a jacare, which was sat underwater about 15 feet from us, motionless. I guess he (the jacare, not the guide) wasn&rsquot;t hungry and that he didn&rsquot;t feel threatened by us.

7. What do you most like about Brazil (in general)?

I like that it is so different from anywhere else I have lived and that there always seems to be something interesting happening – whether a happy social event, the latest crazy traffic manoeuvre I have seen or the latest corruption scandal in the press.

8. What is your favorite restaurant/place to hang out here?

We live in Vila Nova Conceicão and there is a bar there called Vila Isabel (corner of Helio Pelegrino and Diogo Jacome) which we visit quite regularly. For restaurants it is very difficult to pick just one, and we really enjoy trying new places, but we do like Josephine&rsquot;s, which is also in Vila Nova Conceicão.

9. Do you have any funny stories/incidents to tell about your time in Brazil?

I went to see a Palmeiras x Corinthians football match at Morumbi stadium a few years ago while on a holiday here. It rained HARD throughout the game. The supporters on the top deck were amusing themselves by throwing missiles at the Police who were ringing the pitch. Every time the missiles got closer to the police, their Sergeant would authorise them to step backwards a pace, which simply encouraged the supporters to try a little harder. Also the drainage in the stadium was so antiquated that the drainpipes from the top deck drained a flood directly onto about row 10 on the bottom deck. Lastly, at that time, the stadium had a public telephone box (aureliao) on the field, about 5 meters behind one of the goals – I still haven&rsquot;t figured out why. Oh, the game was terrible, but with all the other stuff going on, it really didn&rsquot;t matter.

10. What difference between your homeland and Brazil do you find most striking?

Most striking for me is that the Brazilian people seem to really try to make the best of what they have – most people always seem to be able to find the best in what they have and are never far from a smile and a laugh (I appreciate that my opinion is from the perspective of someone who really doesn&rsquot;t know their lives and whether they are happy or not). My impression is that people who have so much more in the way of material possessions and stability in Europe often seem to form an opinion that their life is not good enough, that they are not happy and that the world owes them a living.

As I am married to a Brazilian I have had to adapt to far more frequent family get-togethers. As I have been living away from England for so long, I have become used to seeing relatives two or three times a year. Here it can be two or three times a week – and it takes some getting used to!

11. How is your Portuguese coming along? What words do you find most difficult to pronounce/remember or are there any words that you regularly confuse?

My Portuguese is getting better but my thoughts on this change daily dependent on the latest CBN radio conversation not understood (massively frustrating) or whether I have just managed a business lunch in Portuguese (a high!). I never imagined how my written comprehension could progress so quickly, and yet my oral comprehension and ability to speak confidently could lag so far behind. Part of this difficulty I think (I hope) is the huge number of slang phrases and colloquialisms that are used. As a motivation I signed up for the Celpe-Bras exam which is in a couple of weeks time now, and although I am not expecting to do well, the fear factor is a great incentive to practice.

I did have a conversation recently where some people were talking about fishing. I joined in enthusiastically telling them I had been fishing in Brazil just once, in the Amazon, for Piranha. I screwed up the word Piranha however and I wondered why they were falling about laughing at my story of fishing for steak (Picanha) in the jungle.

12. What advice do you have for newcomers to Brazil?

Accept that settling in may take a while: I think that when I first got here I was finding some of the settling in process (documents, finding my way, making myself understood etc) difficult, more so than I felt in the USA or Germany, and the result was that I sometimes would become bad tempered and take it out on others – mainly my wife.

Lastly, try to learn the language and really make an effort to do so – it makes such a difference when you really try to learn rather than “hoping to pick it up”.

13. What are some things that you would recommend for a visitor to do in São Paulo (or anywhere else in Brazil)?

Visit as many different restaurants as possible, the variety is huge. Go to a football match – while there can be trouble at some of the bigger games, it is a great experience. Say “yes” to any invitation you receive as a way of getting into a social life.

Are you a foreigner who has lived in, or is living or travelling in Brazil? Are you a Brazilian who has a lot of contact with foreigners and/or lived outside of Brazil? Are you interested in telling your story? If you would like to volunteer for our interview series, or if you would like to recommend someone, please send a blank email to with “Interview” in the subject. We will send you the interview questions by return email.

To read previous interviews in the Brazil Through Foreign Eyes series click below:

Jan Sandbert – Sweden
Jim Jones – USA
Mike Stricklin – USA
Edward Gowing – Australia
Adrian Woods – USA
Kevin Raub – USA
Pierpaolo Ciarcianelli – Italy
Zachary Heilman – USA
David Johnson – Bermuda
Cipriana Leme – Argentina
Timothy Bell – USA
Patti Beckert – USA
Timothy Bell – USA
Paul James – USA
David McLoughlin – Ireland
Pat Moraes – USA
Richard Dougherty – USA
James Weeds – USA
Tom Sluberski – USA
Peter Kefalas – USA
Sylvie Campbell – UK
Kathleen Haynes – USA
Matt Bowlby – USA
Alan Longbottom – UK
Eric Karukin – USA
Eddie Soto – USA
Kieran Gartlan – Ireland
Bryan Thomas Scmidt – USA
Emile Myburgh – South Africa
Bob Chapman – USA
David Barnes – USA
John Milan – USA
Chris Coates – UK
Matthew Ward – UK
Allison Glick – USA
Drake Smith – USA
Jim Jones – USA
Philip Wigan – UK
Atlanta Foresyth – USA
Lee Gordon – USA
Carmen Naidoo – South Africa
Lee Safian – USA
Laurie Carneiro – USA
Dana De Lise – USA
Richard Gant – USA
Robin Hoffman – USA
Wayne Wright – UK
Walt Kirspel – USA
Priya Guyadeen – Guyana
Caitlin McQuilling – USA
Nicole Rombach – Holland
Steven Engler – Canada
Richard Conti – USA
Zak Burkons – USA
Ann White – USA
Monde Ngqumeya – South Africa
Johnny Sweeney – USA
David Harty – Canada
Bill McCrossen – USA
Peter Berner – Switzerland/Brazil
Ethan Munson – USA
Solveig Skadhauge – Denmark
Sean McGown – USA
Condrad Downes – UK
Jennifer Silva – Australian
Justin Mounts – USA
Elliott Zussman – USA
Jonathan Abernathy – USA
Steve Koenig – USA
Kyron Gibbs – USA
Stephanie Early – USA
Martin Raw – UK
Sean Coady – UK
Hugo Delgado – Mexico
Sean Terrillon – Canada
Jessie Simon – USA
Michael Meehan – USA
Thales Panagides – Cyprus
Tammy Montagna – USA
Samantha Tennant – England
Ron Finely – United States
Bob Duprez – United States
Peter Baines – England
Youssef Bouguerra – Tunisia
Van Wallach – USA
Lesley Cushing – England
Alexander von Brincken – Germany
Hank Avellar – USA
Ed Catchpole – England
Penny Freeland – England
Yasemin de Pinto – Turkey
Amy Williams Lima – USA
John Naumann – England
Marsye Schouella – Eygpt
Rita Shannon Koeser – USA
John Fitzpatrick – Scotland
Liam Gallagher – Northern Ireland
Lorelei Jones – England
Adam Glensy – England
Tommie C.B. DeAssis – Japan
Aaron Day – Canada
Graham Debney – New Zealand
Silke Tina Tischendorf – Germany
Tanya Keshavjee Macedo – Canada
Frank de Meijer – Holland
Carl Emberson – Australia
Kim Buarque – Wales
Damiano Pak – South Korea
Jonas Helding – Denmark
Pari Seeber – Iran
John Milton – England
Ken Marshall – Australia

By Joe Lopes
October 18, 2007

Here is the fourth and final part of Joe’s article about Werner Herzog’s film Fitzarraldo. To read the previous parts click the relevant link at the end of the article.

Having His Cake-and Eating It, Too
Though none the worse for wear (one presumes), Fitzcarraldo finally returns to his town’s homeport, but immediately experiences another of those blinding flashes of inspiration.”

This time, however, it pays off handsomely for him, and for all concerned: he sells the Molly Aida in exchange for sufficient earnings to rent out the entire opera company for a day.

We next see the makeshift ensemble, being floated down the river on small barges, with all the participants therein clothed, in seventeenth-century English garb, as pilgrims in Vincenzo Bellini’s I Puritani, singing their hearts out in the act-one bel canto number, “A te, o cara” (“To you, my beloved”), accompanied by several more barges replete with the remaining orchestra members. But where is Fitzcarraldo?

There he is, floating right beside the others – smoking an enormously fat cigar, it would seem – as happy and contented in his work, and in his achievement, as was Dr. Seuss’ red-eyed fiend, the evil Mr. Grinch, in bringing Christmas back to Whoville.

And speaking of cartoon creations, it all seems so silly, really, when one stops to think about how much consternation our hero has caused for the folks around him, and for something so alien and mundane to the local inhabitants as opera. Yet there is (you’ll pardon the expression) method to Fitzcarraldo’s madness: after all, he did do exactly what he set out to do – he brought opera to the town of Iquitos. It’s only his bizarre execution of that incredible feat that left everyone slack-jawed and bewildered, that’s all.

Nevertheless, he showed them, all right. And things did “work out” in the end, though, didn’t they? No longer the brunt of cruel jokes, nor the laughingstock of his community, this “village idiot,” at least, has succeeded in his prime objective, while enjoying the fruits of his labors – as well as his flotilla’s victory display.

We realize now, of course, that he’s not really mad, nor even crazy. He’s just a little bit.well, you know. eccentric.

Copyright 2007 by Josmar F. Lopes

A naturalized American citizen born in Brazil, Joe Lopes was raised and educated in New York City, where he worked for many years in the financial sector. In 1996, he moved to Brazil with his wife and daughters. In 2001, he returned to the U.S. and now resides in North Carolina with his family. You can email your comments to

To read previous articles by Joe Lopes click below:

Brazil: “Opera” in the Amazon – Werner Herzog’s Fitzcarraldo, or The Madness of Foreign Men Part 3
Brazil: “Opera” in the Amazon – Werner Herzog’s Fitzcarraldo, or The Madness of Foreign Men Part 2
Brazil: “Opera” in the Amazon – Werner Herzog’s Fitzcarraldo, or The Madness of Foreign Men Part 1
The Brazilian Beat Goes On: My Own “Best-Of” List of Present-Day Bossa Nova Classics Part 5
The Brazilian Beat Goes On: My Own “Best-Of” List of Present-Day Bossa Nova Classics Part 4
The Brazilian Beat Goes On: My Own “Best-Of” List of Present-Day Bossa Nova Classics Part 3
The Brazilian Beat Goes On: My Own “Best-Of” List of Present-Day Bossa Nova Classics Part 2
The Brazilian Beat Goes On: My Own “Best-Of” List of Present-Day Bossa Nova Classics Part 1
Brazil: The “Italian” Composer from Campinas Part 4
Brazil: The “Italian” Composer from Campinas Part 3
Brazil: The “Italian” Composer from Campinas Part 2
Brazil: The “Italian” Composer from Campinas Part 1
Bringing People Together: Electronic Voyages to Brazil Part 6
Bringing People Together: Electronic Voyages to Brazil Part 5
Bringing People Together: Electronic Voyages to Brazil Part 4
Bringing People Together: Electronic Voyages to Brazil Part 3
Bringing People Together: Electronic Voyages to Brazil Part 2
Bringing People Together: Electronic Voyages to Brazil Part 1
Brecht, Weill & Buarque: The Brazilian Play’s the Thing! Part 2
Misunderstanding Brazil’s National Anthem: A Crash-Course in the Hymn of the Nation
Brecht, Weill & Buarque: The Brazilian Play’s the Thing! Part 1
Theater, the Brecht of Life: The Influences on Chico’s “Modern” Street Opera, Part II
A Walk on the Weill Side: The Influences on Chico’s “Modern” Street Opera Part 2
A Walk on the Weill Side: The Influences on Chico’s “Modern” Street Opera Part 1
Heitor Villa-Lobos: The Brazilian Bach Part 5
Heitor Villa-Lobos: The Brazilian Bach Part 4
Heitor Villa-Lobos: The Brazilian Bach Part 3
Heitor Villa-Lobos: The Brazilian Bach Part 2
Heitor Villa-Lobos: The Brazilian Bach Part 1
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 11
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 10
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 9
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 8
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 7
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 6
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 5
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 4
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 3
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 2
Two Brazilian Charmers Part 1
Teaching English In Brazil Part 21
Teaching English In Brazil Part 20
Teaching English In Brazil Part 19
Teaching English In Brazil Part 18
Teaching English In Brazil Part 17
Teaching English In Brazil Part 16
Teaching English In Brazil Part 15
Teaching English In Brazil Part 14
Teaching English In Brazil Part 13
Teaching English In Brazil Part 12
Teaching English In Brazil Part 11
Brazil: Thrills, Spills, and… Oh Yes, No Ifs, Ands or Head-Butts, Please
Teaching English In Brazil Part 10
Teaching English In Brazil Part 9
Brazil: A Fever Called Corinthians Part 4
Brazil: Taking Flight on Florencia’s Fragile Wings Part 4
Brazil: A Fever Called Corinthians Part 3
Brazilian World Cup Debacle: Just Wait Till 2010! Part 2
Brazilian World Cup Debacle: Just Wait Till 2010! Part 1
Brazil: Taking Flight on Florencia’s Fragile Wings Part 3
Brazil: A Fever Called Corinthians Part 2
Brazil: Taking Flight on Florencia’s Fragile Wings Part 2
Brazil: A Fever Called Corinthians Part 1
Brazil: Taking Flight on Florencia’s Fragile Wings Part 1
Teaching English In Brazil Part 8
Teaching English In Brazil Part 7
Teaching English In Brazil Part 6
Teaching English In Brazil Part 5
Teaching English In Brazil Part 4
Teaching English In Brazil Part 3
Teaching English In Brazil Part 2
A German Ring in the Brazilian Rainforest Part 4
A German Ring in the Brazilian Rainforest Part 3
Teaching English In Brazil – Part I
A German Ring in the Brazilian Rainforest Part 2
A German Ring in the Brazilian Rainforest Part 1
“Down in Brazil,” with Michael Franks Part 3
“Down in Brazil,” with Michael Franks Part 2
“Down in Brazil,” with Michael Franks Part 1
Brazil: A Candid Talk with Gerald Thomas
Getting to the “bottom” of Brazil’s Gerald Thomas
A Brazilian Diva Torn Between Europe and Brazil
The Enraged Genius of Brazil’s Maestro Neschling
A German Ring in the Brazilian Rainforest
Brazil’s Musical Polyglots: What Was That You Were Singing?
Did Bossa Nova Kill Opera in Brazil?

October 18, 2007

This is our regular column called Ask a Brazilian”, the idea being that you can quite literally ask a question of a Brazilian for those issues you aren’t sure about but perhaps dare not ask someone else. It is meant as a bit of fun and answers should not be construed as expert opinion or the definitive reply on the matter. For that reason we ask you to please send comments and experiences in order to add to our replies.

I have a question about “Halls” candy. Here in Canada, Halls are used when you have a cough or a cold. The advertising promotes the “menthol vapour” effect that soothes coughs & sore throats.

But in Brazil, my friends eat Halls just as candy and never heard of having them for coughs and colds.

I wonder if Halls are different in Brazil, or is the marketing of the product just different? They look and taste the same to me in both places.

What is the advertising of Halls like in Brazil ?


David, hello!

First of all thank you so much for sharing this information with us (Brazilians). Halls is good for coughs and colds… That should be on the news!

I called Adams customer service and this is what they said:

– Adams good afternoon.
– Hi, is there any difference between Halls in Canada and Brazil?
– No. Halls is the same product everywhere. It’s a candy.
– Yes, and what about the cough relief effects?
– Cough relief??
– There is the website that says “Halls mentholated cough drops start to work within 10 seconds to suppress coughs and soothe sore throats”.
– What is the website again, please?
– “g” de gato, “e” de elefante, “t” de tartaruga,
– (reading) … I… it’s… hum… could you give me your phone number, please?
– (my phone number).
– Ms, I’m afraid I will have to call you back. I am sorry I couldn’t help you.
– It’s ok. I will wait for your call. Thank you.
– “Thank you for calling Adams, your call is very important for us”.

Adams didn’t call me back, so I called again:

– Adams good afternoon.
– Hi, is there any difference between Halls in Canada and Brazil?
– No. It’s the same product everywhere.
– And what about the cough relief effects?
– Oh, it’s just a rumour.
– A rumour?!
– Yes. They say eucalyptus is good for coughs.
– I am sorry but you have it on the website: “suppress coughs and soothe sore throats”.
– Oh, but it’s just a concept. It’s just a candy.

So that’s it, a “refreshing candy”, for Brazil.

I have searched for local ads, they don’t mention Hall’s cold relief effects. I guess it’s because of the supposed good weather; that is “Brazilians don’t get colds” they must think. I think it’s a huge mistake. But that is just a guess and an opinion.

The slogan here is “Go for it. It’s Halls”. 100% marketed at young people. Its main website speaks for itself ( with only the “baladeiros” (people who visit night clubs).


Vanessa T. Bauer

Are there any burning questions you have about Brazil, or other issues that you’re curious about, such as Brazilian culture? If so, send your questions to with “Ask a Brazilian” in the subject. We will forward to our Brazilian experts, and publish the best questions (and replies) on the site.

Previous questions in this article series:

Ask a Brazilian: Liberal or Jealous?
Ask a Brazilian: Truck Wheels
Ask a Brazilian: Tolerance
Ask a Brazilian: Screens
Ask a Brazilian: Brazilian Wax
Ask a Brazilian: Flashing Lights
Ask a Brazilian: Lemon and Limes
Ask a Brazilian: Shocking Showers

By G Gilmore
October 16, 2007

Last Friday I was heading for a teacher’s Workshop sponsored by the largest educational book publisher in Brazil, riding the train around the northwest corner of the city. The train which runs ‘up and down’ along the west side is relatively new. Clean air conditioned cars, classical music on the intercom and, all in all, a pleasure to ride. The passengers on the westside train are mostly people heading to their yuppie jobs. Between 8:00 and 8:30am the cars are fairly crowded.

The trains which run from the across the north side of town are a different story – they are older, less well-maintained, no A/C, no Muzak and most of the passengers are definitely a different type of people.

On all the trains, by about 9am, the commuters have left the train cars relatively empty. There is space enough to walk up and down the center aisle; most of the seats are occupied. On the westside trains, it is rare to see anyone selling gum or chocolates or water, while on the northside trains, it is almost an every-car occurrence. By 10am, especially on the northside trains, the street vendors are heading for their street corners downtown or at one of the parks or a subway station, or wherever their outdoor store is today. About this time the ‘train vendors’ come out of the woodwork. Walking the center aisle of the train car, they hawk their goods. Chocolate! Tres para um!” they shout. “Agua gelada! Um Real!” There are blind and crippled folks panhandling, and children panhandling, also, though the beggars are encountered much less frequently than the train vendors.

Rose, as I have chosen to name her, is a street vendor, and was heading for her particular piece of sidewalk with her wobbly-wheeled fold-up luggage cart – the type you used to see people pulling in the airports – loaded with her quota for the day: ten bundles of roses in various colors, 6 dozen to a bundle. Rose was dressed as most of the street vendors dress. Definitely not office attire, and perhaps calculated to encourage customers to take pity and buy. Perhaps not. She looked as if she literally did not have a pit to hiss in. Matted hair, tattered sweater, ill-fitting skirt over baggy pants and dirty feet in well-worn flip-flops. Had her clothes been donated to a Salvation Army second-hand store in the USA, they would have gone straight to the dumpster. She was built like a semi-pro offensive lineman who last saw his private parts without a mirror about 20 years ago. I did not name her Rose because she smelled or looked like one! All-in-all, I think “the appearance of extreme poverty” would describe her pretty well.

A blind man got on the train at one of the stations, his cane not a white one, but a four foot section of sapling. One eye was closed, the other apparently unseeing. Tap-tap-tapping with the sapling, he made his way from the front of the car toward the other end, his free hand held out palm-up in a universal gesture.

Rose was dressed better than the blind man. “Abject poverty” is the phrase I would use to describe his appearance. So, that’s the background – the set-up for what took place.

The blind man had made his way to the center of the car without receiving any donations. I was surprised to see Rose leave her merchandise. She walked quickly to the blind man and pressed a couple coins into his hand. His smile and thanks were apparently unnoticed by Rose as she turned and hurried back to her cart. I do not think she needed or wanted to be thanked. Just a quick hit-and-run, doing ‘the right thing’, on a personal level.

The blind man finished his walk to the end of the car without receiving any more donations. At the next station he got off and boarded the next car to repeat his walk. Two stations after that, Rose pulled her cart onto the platform and headed for the streets.”

By Tico Johnny
October 16, 2007

Are you a flabby, pasty expat looking to get in shape and impress the gatinhas? A ripped jiu-jitsu knuckledragger in search of a new challenge? Or perhaps you’re a Mr. Limpet type looking to commune with the aquatic world. Grab a board – surf’s up!

Surfing has something to offer everyone: an oceanic spiritual awakening; a serious upper body workout (and lower, once you get good); the ultimate multi-tasking athletic endeavor; the freedom and beauty that can only come from harnessing the raw energy of planet earth. Did I mention the surfer babes yet?

And what better place to learn than Brazil? With thousands of miles of coastline – from the raging barrels of Maresias to the shark infested peaks of Pernambuco – it’s no accident that Brazilians have embraced the sport and are even making a name for themselves in the top ranks of professional surfing. You may never compete with world champ Kelly Slater, but you’re sure to find a wave that suits your style and ability.

OK, you’re sold. You’re so stoked you can taste the saltwater. How do you get started?

I sort of hate to admit it, but I went to a surf camp. After struggling to learn snowboarding on my own, I finally got smart when I took the oceanic plunge. It sounds (and looks) kind of nerdy, but it was well worth it. My initial attempts at waveriding were, shall we say, legendary”. Without good instruction, I probably would have taken up golf instead!

So if your secretary’s brother-in-law keeps “forgetting” to take you surfing, consider the full-blown surf camp/surf school. Typically you’ll get both “dry” and “wet” lessons – basic theory and techniques on the beach, plus wave time with the instructor for several hours. Some of them will set you up in a nice pousada and take you to various breaks, depending on conditions. Brazil has quite a few reputable ones – just search the “internets” or ask at your local surf shop (yes, there are surf shops in São Paulo).

But why take lessons? Can’t you just wing it? It looks fairly simple.

Easy – surfing is difficult, and yes, it can be dangerous. It’s all about efficiency out there in the water, and the most efficient way to get up and surfing is to pay your dues and put in your time with a “qualified” instructor.

And then there’s the whole “surfer etiquette” thing you have to learn. Please don’t be like the floundering French guy at Maresias who almost got fin tracks across his legs. I had the right-of-way; he obviously was clueless that there was such a thing as a surfer right-of-way. Sacre Bleu!

OK, before we turn you loose, a few rules to surf by:

1. Know how to swim, and get yourself in reasonable shape before you start. When your leash breaks and you have your “Mr. Limpet” moment, you’ll want to able to swim back to shore!

2. Don’t surf alone. That’s a no-brainer.

3. Don’t worry too much about predatory sea critters (except in Recife). Do you worry about getting shot on the mean streets of São Paulo? Of course not! The same logic applies. Also, since you intend to faithfully follow rule #2 your odds will be reduced.

4. Don’t be a tourist and rent a beat up, water logged shortboard from some moleque on the beach. (See the part about “breaking leash” in rule #1) What’s a shortboard? In general, there are:

– Longboards: 8′ plus in length, they are the most stable and easiest to paddle (meaning more waves can be caught). Your best bet when starting out.
– Funboards: Around 7′-8′ long. Good paddling and flotation, but more maneuverable (and easier to carry – a must for looking “legal” on the beach) then a longboard. A good choice.
– Shortboards: Less than 7′. Highly maneuverable, but a real pain to learn on, unless you’re 10 years old and live at the beach. They don’t paddle well and are wicked unstable. But hey, they look cool (unless they’re waterlogged rentals), and all the local shredders ride them. “Longeeboardgees” are for old, fat, gringos! Se liga!

5. Did I mention taking lessons? I thought so.

And there you have it. Next week Tico Johnny will give away his secret Brazilian surf spots. Stay tuned and Boas Ondas!

By Tim Cowman
October 16, 2007

Climate change is THE hot topic (please excuse the pun) of the moment. No more so than in the country commonly referred to as the lungs of the world, Brazil. Over the next four weeks Tim Cowman will bring us up to speed on the newly created business of the climate.

For those of you based in Brazil you’ll be glad to know that you live a relatively low impact carbon life here (apart from those of you that can afford to fly to and from wherever you originate on a regular basis of course). The reason for this is that a vast percentage of this country’s energy, above 90% in some states, comes from the renewable energy source of hydro power. In addition to this, on the back of the most advanced clean fuels system in the world based on a 30 year old ethanol research programme, 75% of all newly sold cars are of a flex fuel variety. Making this country truly world class in more activities than just football and carnival and in many respects being the envy of the world.

However a quick glance at the league of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters witnesses that Brazil lies in a very significant fourth position. The reason being that as the majority of other countries across the globe are working through the night to turn themselves off their reliance on fossil fuels and produce an energy matrix on par with this country, Brazil has a unique problem of its own.

The greenhouse gases originating from Brazil are from a remarkably different source to those released from the other nations making major contributions to climate change. Whereas 80% of the worlds GHGs emissions can be attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels, 75% of Brazil’s emissions are the direct result of deforestation causing the release of 400 million tones of CO2 annually.

Despite the significance of these figures, in recent months, the Brazilian government has been at pains to discredit the myth that Brazilian deforestation is the key to climate change. Due to some very strong marketing campaigns in recent years the Amazon forest is viewed by many as the lungs of the world and the Ministry of Environment has been attempting to put this in some sort of perceptive.

The basis of their argument has two clear points, firstly the actual contribution of this deforestation in terms of GHGs emissions on a global level is much lower than they believe many of the world’s population assumes. According to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report the principal source for the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since the pre-industrial period is the use of fossil fuels, with the contribution of deforestation being much smaller but significant. Secondly the developed nations have a huge responsibility as they have been built on the energy of fossil fuels which remains the principal source of carbon emissions.

For Brazil it is important that the world does not point its collective finger towards the destruction of the Amazon as the root cause of the climate change problem. At the same time with present annual deforestation rates running at 26 million square kilometres and viewed in light of its contribution to Brazilian GHG emissions it is an issue that requires a long lasting and fairly swift national response.

Part 3 next week, discussing the complications of reforestation and carbon credits…

Tim Cowman works for Biostudio Environmental Services ( A São Paulo based Environmental Consultancy active in carbon inventories, environmental translations, carbon reduction projects and environmental education. Email

Previous articles by Tim:

Brazil: The Business of Climate Change Part 1

Where is the Biodiesel in Brazil?
The Kyoto Protocol: A Brazilian Opportunity? Part 2
The Kyoto Protocol: A Brazilian Opportunity? Part 1
Brazil: The Real Estate Mafia?
Brazil: The Third Insight – Real change is a slow process
Brazil: The Second Insight – In Adversity We See a People’s True Nature
Brazil: The First Insight – Top sportsman “In the zone” a state of Nirvana?
Brazil: Enlightenment – The Way of the FIFA World Cup
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 4
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 4
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 2
Brazil: World Cup Blog Part 1
Brazil: Welcome to Samba Football School
Brazil: The Romance of the Copa Brasil Part 2
Brazil: The Romance of the Copa Brasil Part 1
Brazil: On the Road in the North East
Brazil: Teresina Part 3
Brazil: Teresina Part 2
Brazil: Teresina Part 1